Kalju Patustaja (new_etymology) wrote,
Kalju Patustaja
new_etymology

Semantic cluster around the word 'AGE' / 'YUGA'

Word 'AGE' is a very important one: it is surrounded by words with semantics of ‘day’ (‘sunlight part of the day’, ‘daytime’, ‘lifetime’) and ‘south’ (‘the side of the world where the sun is at its zenith’), found in languages present all around the Globe:

egun (Basque) – day; hego, egu (Basque) – south;
gün (Turk.), көн [kön] (Tatar) – day; güney (Turk.), көньяк [könyak] (Tatar) – south;
[югъ; yug] (Old Georgian), [йагъ; jag] (Megrelian) – day;
[югыт; yugıt] (Udmurt) - light, bright; [йегит; jegit] (Udmurt) - young;
jug (Slovenian), юг [yug] (Rus.), etc. – south in most Slavic languages (in Ukrainian: пiвдень – south, literally, ‘midday’, same as Ital. mezzogiorno – south, literally, ‘midday’);
ужин [uzhin] (Rus.), у́жина, ю́жина [uzhina, juzhina] (Old Bulg.), у̏жина [uzhina] (Old Serbian), júžinа (Old? Slovenian), juzyna (Old Polish), Jause (Old German dialectic) – dinner, initially lunch, snack, midday meal; uzsonna (Hung.) – a snack;
yüz (Turk., Azeri), жүз [zhüz](Kazakh) – hundred; yüzyıl (Turk.) – century; Compare to: жизнь [zhizn’] (Rus.) – life, lifetime;
ยุค [Yukh] (Thai) - era, epoch, age, day;
युग [yug] (Hindi) - era, epoch, period, eon, aeon, age, day;
юга, yugа (an era in the Indian Vedas; according to Vedas, there were four yugas (sunlight epochs), each followed by global cataclysms (floods, volcanic eruptions, a temporary end of the sun(light), as skies were completely covered with thick layers of volcanic dust);
ug, ud, u (Sumerian) - time, moment, period, day;
[ayana] (Egyptian) - semester, half year;
agu, ao (Est.) - dawn;
aeg, aja, aega (Est.), aika (Fin., Votic), āiga (Livonian), aiga (Izhorian), aigu (Karelian), aig (Chudian, Vepssian) – time, epoche, period, century, age, eternity; day (e.g., head aega! (Est.) – good day!); gen. aja (Est.) – of time (e.g., ajalugu – history, literally, "time tale", compare to strange name "Повесть временных лет", ‘The Tale of Bygone Years’, literally, ‘The Tale of TIME(D) Years’); ajat (Fin.) – times; aeglane (Est.) – slow, unhurried; aeg-ajalt (Est.) – from time to time, at times; aegu(ma) (Est.) – to age, to become obsolete, to get to the end of the lifetime;
iga (Est.), igā (Livonian), itšä (Votic), ikä (Fin.), igä (Izhorian, Chudian, Vepssian), igäü (Karelian) – age, years, life, lifetime;
jahki (Saami), ije (Erzia), ij (Mari), év (Hung.) – year;
age (Eng.), age (Fr.), aetas (Lat.), etá (Ital.) – age, epoch, time, period of time;
ago (Eng.) – back in time;
[ayu] (Avest.) – age; [ayu] (Sanskrit) – life;
आयु [aayu] (Hindi) - age, life, life-period;
อายุ [hāyu] (Thai) - age, lifespan, year;
[haya] (Arabic), hayat (Turkish), həyat (Azeri), hayot (Uzbek) – life;
že, užè (Slovenian), już (Polish), уже [uzhe] (Rus.), etc. – already;
déjà (Fr.), già, di già (=di giorno) (Ital.) – already, literally ‘from (mid)day’;
jo (Fin., Sw.), juba (Est.) – already; Compare to jubilé (Fr.), iubileum (Lat.) - jubilee;

With w-(v-) at the beginning:
> week (Eng.), Woche (Ger.), vekka (Sw.) – week;
> век [vek] (Rus.) - time, era; веха [veha] (Rus.) – a milestone, a finished period;
> [waqt] (Arab.) - time;
> vakit (Turk.), vaxt (Azeri), vaqt (Uzb.), уақыт [vakhyt] (Kaz.), убакыт [ubakyt] (Kyrg.), вақт [vakht] (Tadzh.) - time;
> vecchio (Ital.) - old, elder;
> vég (Hung.) – the end; végzet (Hung.) – the fate;
> végr, végre (Hung.) – in the end;
> vakare (Lithuanian) - evening; vakaruose (Lith.) - West;
> вечер, vecher (Slavic) - evening; N.B. close to, but unlikely a direct derivation from the Gr. ἑσπέρα, Latin vesper, vespera, vesperum - evening; west; esperare (Sp.) - to wait; sperare (It.) - to hope.</a> Could similarly be indirectly related to vestr (Old Norse), vestur (Icelandic) - west, the sunset side.
See: https://new-etymology.livejournal.com/15774.html

With p-(b-) at the beginning:
> päike (Est.) – the sun; päev (Est.), päivä (Fin.) – day;
> peče (Slov.), печь [pech’] (Rus.) – to bake (Eng.).




Related are also the words with semantics of ‘being aged’, ‘being mature’:

ugu (Sumerian) – ancestor;
aikamies (Fin.) – an aged, adult person;
ukko (Fin.) – the old man, the grandfather, the forefather; akka (Fin.) – the foremother;
Ukko, or Äijä or Äijö parallel in Estonian mythology to Uku, is the god of the sky, weather, harvest and thunder in Finnish mythology. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukko
kääkkä (Finnish) - an old man or a woman, older than Ukko, Äijä and Akka;
vecchio (Ital.) - old, elder;
vecākā f., vecākais m. (Latvian) - elder;
вуйко [vuyko] (Ukrainian), wujek (Polish), ујак [ujak] (Serbian, Croatian) - mother's uncle; polite addressing of an elder person; вуйко [vuyko] (Guzul) – a bear;
baka (Bosnian, Croatian) - grandmother;
γιαγιά (Gr.) – grandmother;
agg aggastyán (Hun.) - very old person;
aka, ağa (Tukish) – an elder brother; a(village) headman; the master; the lord; ага [aga] (Tatar) – an uncle, a venerable (revered) person, a respectable husband; аға [agha] (Kazakh) – a senior person; an elder brother; an elder relative; an uncle along the line of the father; the respected oldest man; ағай [aghay] (Kaz.) – an uncle; a respectful appeal to an elder person;
аке [ake] (Kirgyz) - uncle; аганы [agany] (Kirgyz) – elder brother; akaa (Pashtu) - uncle, old man;
әже [äje] (Kazakh) - grandmother;
አጎት [āgoti] (Amharic language of Ethiopia) - uncle;
aki (Sudan dialect of Arabic) – grandfather; kokolot (Sudan) - elder;
agogo, gogo (Chichewa Bantu language in Southern Africa) – grandfather, great-grandfather, grandmother, great-grandmother; ugogo (Zulu) – grandmother; akulu (Chichewa) – senior;
kakan (Hausa language in Western Africa) – grandfather, grandmother; oga (Yoruba language in Nigeria), agadi, okenye (Igbo language in Nigeria) – elder, senior;
kagan (hakan, Mong. Qaɣan, kaan, haan, Chinese 可汗 [Kè hán]) - the highest title of a sovereign in the medieval nomadic hierarchy, the Khan of Khans, the great Khan;
ах [ah] (Mongolian) – elder brother; эгч [egch] (Mong.) – elder sister;
哥哥[gēgē] (Chinese) – elder brother;
[ak, akā, akai] (Dravidian) – elder relative; [akka] (Malayalam Dravidian) - elder sister, wife of an elder brother, elderly maternal or paternal cousin; ಅಕ್ಕ [akka] (Kannada), [akkë] (Kodagu), [akka, akkè] (Tulu Dravidian), అక్క [akka] (Telugu) - elder sister; [ukko, akko] (Gondi, a language in India) – mother’s grandfather;
ಅಜ್ಜ [ajja] (Kannada), आजोबा [Ājōbā] (Marathi) - grandfather; ಅಜ್ಜಿ [ajji] (Kannada), आजी [ājī] (Marathi), ආච්චි, ආච්චි අම්මා [ācci, ācci ammā] (Sinhalese) – grandmother;
કાકા [kākā] (Gujarati), काका [kākā] (Marathi), चाचा [chaacha](Nepal, Hindi), চাচা [cācā] (Bengali) - uncle;
ukko (Tamil) – the old man; [akkā, akkai, akkan, akkāttai, akkāḷ, akkacci, akkaicci] (Tamil), අක්කා [akkā] (Sinhalese) - elder sister;
Bali-Aga - an ancient Balinese people, considered to be the indigenous and most ancient population of Bali, which appeared in Bali before the migration from Java of the main mass of Hindus at the times of the Majapahit empire ;
ยาย [yāy] (Thai) - grandmother; ใหญ่ [yāy] (Thai) – big, large, grand;
uyoan (Cebuan language in Philippines) – uncle; kuya (Philip.) – elder brother;
tuakana (Maori language in New Zealand) – elder brother;
toeaina (Samoa) - elder; tiyuhin (Philippines), tuagane (Samoa) - uncle;
kaikuaana (Hawaian) – elder brother, elder sister;
kakek (Indonesian) – grandfather; kakak (Indonesian) – elder brother;
käkäs (Kwagiutl, Kwak'wala language of North-American Indians) - grandfather;
[acan] (Maya) – mother's uncle; the husband of the father's sister; brother of mother’s grandfather; [akka] (Inuit) - paternal uncle; [akah] (Karok) – father;
Achamán – the supreme god of the Guanches on the island of Tenerife; the father-god and creator. The name means literally "(man) from heaven", hinting at the heavenly vault (sky). Compare back to: ég (Hung.) – sky, haven.



And the Senior is also the First, the One:

[eka] (colloquial Finnish) - first.

egy (Hung.) - one;
އެކެއް [ekeḣ] (Divehi, Maldives) - one;
ekahi (Hawayan) - one;
[eka] (Sanskrit) - one, sole, single;
एक [ek] (Hindi), এক [ek] (Bengal.), एक [eka] (Marathi), [eka] (Pali), یوअख [akʰ] (Kashmiri), [ikk] (Punjabi) - one;
ایک [ik] (Urdu), یِک [yek] (Pers.), یهک [yek, êk] (Kurdish), як [yak] (Tajik), ек (Tat, Iranian), екх [ekh] (Gipsy) - one;
нэг [neg] (Mongol.) - one;
aiquen (Nauru) - one;
[huk, suk, jujj] (Kechua) - one;
壱 [ichi] (Jap.) - one;
ik, ikte, ик, икте, икыт (Mari) - one;
એકડો [ekaddo] (Gujarati) - one;
э̄ххт [eehht] (Kildin Saami), okta (Saami), ak, akw, ак, аква (Mansi) - one;
ühe (Est.) - sole, single, mono-; üks, ühe, üht (Est., Izhora), ikš, ükš (Livon.), yksi (Fin.), üksi (Karel.), ükš (Lüdic, Vepssian) - one.

[isch, ish] (Hebrew) - a sole person, a single man.

ich (Ger.), Εγώ [ego] (Gr.), ego (Lat.), io (Ital.), yo (Sp.), I (Eng.), jag (Sw.), я [ja] (Slavic)...

Learn more in The extended etymology for Ego, Εγώ ( I ): https://new-etymology.livejournal.com/277655.html
укс.JPG


And the basis for all of the above words is apparently the FIRE:

ogenj (Slovenian); огонь [ogon'] (Rus.), etc. in Slavic languages;
ọkụ (Igbo language in Nigeria) - fire;
[vegu] (Dravidian) – to burn;
fuoco (Ital.), fogo (Port.), fuego (Sp.) – fire; fogón (Sp.) – stove, furnance (with beginning f- added);
bake (Eng.) - to cook by dry heat in a closed place or on a heated surface (with beginning b- added);
ignis (Lat.) – fire; ignition (Eng.) – an act of heating to the point of combustion;
ugn, ugnen (Sw.) – stove, furnance;
[agni] (Sanscrit), āg, agni (Urdu), agir (Kurdish), agg (Punjabi) – fire;
[ach] (Hebrew) - hearth, furnance, fireplace;
ahi (Est.), ō’i, ā’i (Livonian), ahjo (Fin., Votic, Karelian), ahď(o) (Chudian), ahj (Vepssian) - hearth, furnance, fireplace;
ahin, õhin (Est.) - heat, fire, glow, ardor, air gust, air flaw, airy;
Compare: aggu (Innuit) – wind side;
õhka(ma) (Est.) - to sigh, to breath; to puff with heat, to exude heat, to radiate heat;
õhku(ma) (Est.) - to blow, to radiate, to puff, to flame, to glow, to burn;
õhuta(ma) (Est.) - to aerate, to inflate, to fan, to burn up;
õhk, gen. õhu, õhku (Est.) - air, atmosphere; õhe, gen. õhke (Est.) - breath, sighing;
õhu (Est.) - airy;
õhuke(ne), õhuline (Est.), õhud (Votic), ohu(t) (Fin.), ohukkain (Izhorian) - airy, thin, light, weightless, transparent.

This connection of the semantics of OGEN being a produce of 'AERATING', 'RADIATING HEAT' is not found in either the Slavic or any other 'Indo-Germanic' languages, but has a clear explanation in the Finnic langauges. If there was a 'proto-Slavic', a 'proto-Germanic' language, it was Finnic.

Compare also to:
ég (Hungarian) – sky, heaven; ég(ni) (Hung.) – to burn, to flame.

Tags: english etymology beyond indo-europeism, nostratic languages hypothesis is alive, paleocontact hypotheis
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